Internal Packages

Internal Packages

Internal packages are packages which are only intended to be used inside your monorepo. They're extremely useful for sharing code between apps in closed-source monorepos.

Internal packages are quick to create, and can be turned into external packages if you end up wanting to publish them to npm.

What makes a package internal?

External packages run their files through a bundler before putting them on a package registry. This means they need a lot of tooling to handle.

  • Bundlers: to build the package
  • Versioning: to help with versioning and releases
  • Publishing: to publish the package

If you want to use those files locally, you'll also need:

  • Dev scripts: for bundling the package locally when files change

Because internal packages are not published, we can skip all of these steps. Instead of bundling our package ourselves, we're going to make the app which imports the package bundle it for us.

This sounds complex, but it's extremely easy to set up.

Our first internal package

We're going to create a shared math-helpers package inside our monorepo.

1. Create your monorepo

If you don't have an existing monorepo, create one using our guide.

2. Create a new package

Inside /packages, create a new folder called math-helpers.

mkdir packages/math-helpers

Create a package.json:

  "name": "math-helpers",
  "dependencies": {
    // Use whatever version of TypeScript you're using
    "typescript": "latest"

Create a src folder, and add a TypeScript file at packages/math-helpers/src/index.ts.

export const add = (a: number, b: number) => {
  return a + b;
export const subtract = (a: number, b: number) => {
  return a - b;

You'll also need to add a tsconfig.json at packages/math-helpers/tsconfig.json:

  "compilerOptions": {
    "esModuleInterop": true,
    "forceConsistentCasingInFileNames": true,
    "isolatedModules": true,
    "module": "ESNext",
    "moduleResolution": "Bundler",
    "preserveWatchOutput": true,
    "skipLibCheck": true,
    "noEmit": true,
    "strict": true
  "exclude": ["node_modules"]

Great! We've now got all the files we need for our internal package.

3. Import the package

We're now going to import the package and see what happens. Go into one of your apps, and add math-helpers into the dependencies of its package.json:

  "dependencies": {
    "math-helpers": "*"

Install all packages from root to ensure that dependency works.

Now add an import from math-helpers into one of your app's source files:

+ import { add } from "math-helpers";
+ add(1, 2);

You'll likely see an error!

Cannot find module 'math-helpers' or its corresponding type declarations.

That's because we've missed a step. We haven't told our math-helpers/package.json what the entry point to our package is.

4. Fix exports

Go back to packages/math-helpers/package.json and add a field: exports:

  "name": "math-helpers",
  "exports": {
    ".": "./src/index.ts"
  "dependencies": {
    "typescript": "latest"

Now, anything that imports our math-helpers module will be pointed directly towards the src/index.ts file - that's the file that they will import.

Go back to apps/web/pages/index.tsx. The error should be gone!

5. Try running the app

Now, try running that app's dev script. In the default turborepo, this will be as easy as:

turbo dev

When it starts running, you'll likely see an error in your web browser:

Module parse failed: Unexpected token (1:21)
You may need an appropriate loader to handle this file type,
currently no loaders are configured to process this file.

> export const add = (a: number, b: number) => {
|   return a + b;
| };

This is what happens when you try and import an un-bundled file into a Next.js app.

The fix is simple - we need to tell Next.js to bundle the files from certain packages it imports.

6. Configuring your app

We can do that using transpilePackages in next.config.js (requires v13.1+):

/** @type {import('next').NextConfig} */
const nextConfig = {
  transpilePackages: ['math-helpers'],
module.exports = nextConfig;

Restart your dev script, and go to the browser.

The error has disappeared!

7. Summary

We are now able to add any amount of code into our math-helpers package, and use it in any app in our monorepo. We don't even need to build our package - it just works.

This pattern is extremely powerful for creating pieces of code that can be easily shared between teams.

Quick Reference

Quick reference - creating a new internal package

  1. Create a new folder in packages/<folder>
  2. Add a package.json, with name and types pointing at src/index.ts (or src/index.tsx)
  3. Add src/index.tsx, with at least one named export
  4. Install your packages from root

Quick reference - importing an internal package

  1. Ensure that you're importing it correctly
  2. Ensure that you've configured your app to transpile it